Limnonectes Magnus Classification Essay

Comprehensive Description

Biology

The fanged frogs of Asia are a moderately species-rich group of 55 described taxa distributed across much of SE Asia (Evans et al., 2003; Inger, 1999; AmphibiaWeb, 2011: www.amphibiaweb.org). Species of the genus Limnonectes have been recorded from as far west as India and China, through the Malaysian Peninsula and the Sunda Shelf Islands of Indonesia, the Philippines, and as far east as the Indonesian islands of the Malukus, the Lesser Sundas, and Papua New Guinea (Daudin, 1802; Duellman, 1993; Frost, 1985; Inger and Tan, 1996; Iskandar, 1998; Iskandar and Tjan, 1996; Inger, 1999; Smith, 1927; Zhao and Adler, 1993). Females of most species display reverse sexual dimorphism, with males being the larger sex.

Recently, many undescribed cryptic species have been identified (Evans et al., 2003), and widely distributed polytypic species complexes are commonly discussed in taxonomic and geographic summaries (Iskandar and Colijn, 2000; Iskandar and Tjan, 1996; Inger, 1999). The few available molecular phylogenetic studies of Limnonectes suggest that numerous cryptic species may exist (Emerson, 1996; Emerson et al., 2000; Evans et al., 2003; McLeod, 2010; Setiadi et al., 2011), especially in “widespread” species (complexes) like the L. kuhli (McLeod, 2010) and L. blythi groups; however, taxonomists have been reluctant to describe these taxa on the basis of molecular sequence data alone and revisionary studies have lagged far behind molecular work (Iskandar and Tjan, 1996; R. F. Inger, D. T. Iskandar, A. C. Alcala, personal communication). Nevertheless, some of the undescribed species are likely morphologically distinct and readily diagnosable on the basis of morphological characters.

Eleven species of Limnonectes are recognized to occur in the Philippines (Limnonectesacanthi, Limnonectesdiuatus, Limnonectesferneri, Limnonectesleytensis, Limnonectesmacrocephalus, Limnonectesmagnus, Limnonectesmicrixalus, Limnonectespalavanensis, Limnonectesparvus, Limnonectesvisayanus, and Limnonecteswoodworthi). Several of these species are recognized to possess widespread distributions, some spanning recognized faunal demarcations (Limnonectesacanthi, Limnonectesleytensis, Limnonectesmacrocephalus, Limnonectesmagnus, Limnonectesvisayanus, Limnonecteswoodworthi). Several of these species have been shown to consist of deeply divergent, and likely unique, lineages (Evans et al., 2003).

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Distribution

Range Description

This species complex is found on Mindanao, Basilan, Bohol, Camiguin, Samar and Leyte Islands in the Philippines, from 1,200-1,800m asl, as well as on Sulawesi, Indonesia.

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Type Locality

"Mount Apo, Mindanao, between Todaya and camp, 4,000 to 6,000 feet altitude" in the Philippines; type stored in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington; USNM 35231

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Faunal Affinity

Mindanao Pleistocene Aggregate Island Complex (PAIC; Brown and Diesmos, 2002)

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This species has been documented to occur on the islands of Mindanao, Basilan, Bohol, Samar, and Leyte in the Philippines.

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Size

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Diagnostic Description

Limnonectesmagnus can be distinguished from congeners in the Philippines, and non-Philippine (but phenotypically similar) species L. kuhlii and L. asperatus, by the following combination of characters: 1) body size large (SVL 66.3-164.4 mm); 2) dorsal skin smooth; 3) tympanum hidden on dorsal edge; 4) supratympanic fold prominent, rugose; 5) snout pointed; 6) Finger-I length greater than Finger-II length; 7) white-tipped dorsal sperities absent; 8) white-tipped dorsal asperity clusters absent; 9) irregular dorsal folds/ridges absent; and 10) continuous dorsolateral folds absent (Siler et al., 2009).

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Type Information

Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35235
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35250
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35249
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35248
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35247
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35246
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35245
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35244
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35243
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35242
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35240
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35239
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35238
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35236
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, at Todaya, Davao Del Sur, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1067 to 1067

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35234
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35233
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Paratype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35232
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Paratype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Holotype for Limnonectes magnus
Catalog Number: USNM 35231
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Mount Apo, between Todaya and camp, Mindanao Island, Philippines
Elevation (m): 1219 to 1829

  • Holotype: Stejneger, L. 1909. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.

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Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

It inhabits undisturbed and disturbed streams and rivers in lower montane and lowland forests. It breeds and deposits egg clutches in quiet side pools of forested riverine habitats.


Systems

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Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category

NT

Near Threatened


Red List Criteria

Version

3.1


Year Assessed

2004


Assessor/s

Arvin Diesmos, Angel Alcala, Rafe Brown, Leticia Afuang, Genevieve Gee, Djoko Iskandar


Reviewer/s

Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)


Contributor/s

Justification

Listed as Near Threatened because this species is probably in significant decline (but probably at a rate of less than 30% over ten years) because of widespread habitat loss through much of its range, and over-harvesting for food, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

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