Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony, no. 40 in G minor
A recording of the symphony can be found on Columbia's Online reserves here.
Like Platonic forms, musical forms are idealized visions. Sometimes these idealized representations become the norm; both sonata form and depictions of rhinoceroses succumbed to this force. Because of its codification in the nineteenth century - primarily through the writings of the 19th century music theorist A.B. Marx - sonata form became the predominant organizational principle of music in the common practice period. Like theme-and-variations, or rondo, or even ritornello form, sonata form presents a series of procedures for structuring a piece of music; in practice, composers choose exactly how they will interact with these norms. In the Classical and Romantic symphony, you can expect the first movement to be in Sonata Form.
At its most basic level, sonata form enacts a conflict between two key areas and themes stated in each of these areas. Sonatas are in three parts: an exposition, development, and recapitulation. While there are exceptions, a standard Major key sonata will pit the tonic against the dominant.
A sonata opens with an exposition in which a first main theme(s) is presented in the tonic key. After a transition, a second theme or theme group appears. The second theme tends to be in a different key area and often has a different character. (Many times the exposition is preceded by a slow introduction which serves to quiet the listener for the disquisition that will follow.) After a repeat of the exposition, the thematic and tonal conflict is worked out in the development: a section in which fragments of themes are presented in a variety of keys and musical-tonal tension is brought to a high point. Finally the conflict is resolved, with the first theme invariably the winner, in the recapitulation. The material from the exposition is presented again, however the second theme is now presented in the key of the first theme. Often the recapitulation is followed by a short coda, or tail. Generally, the coda should provide an emphatic endorsement of the tonic key and a sturdy cadence.This is the basic framework. One of the things that makes a composition in sonata form interesting is the ways that composers deal with the restraints presented by this form. It is important to note that sonata form was codified long after the works that were said to be written in sonata form. It is difficult to find compositions that stick strictly to this form.
Mozart's symphonic output was a bit less prolific than that of his teacher Haydn, who gave the world over 100 symphonies. But given Mozart's short life (35 years) and the uniformly high quality of his compositions, 41 numbered symphonies is nothing to scoff at. (The actual total is anywhere between 55 or 71 depending on how broad one's definition of "Symphony" is.) Symphony 40, written toward the end of his life, depicts a different perspective from his earlier works, for instance, Symphony Number 9.
Beyond the maturity that comes from experience, one primary difference between the two symphonies is their tonality: Symphony 40 is one of only two of Mozart's numbered symphonies written in a minor key. Commentators tend to dwell on the pathos inherent in this key (G minor) and see this Symphony as a bellwether of Romanticism. In the context of Romanticsim, we often view the troubles within a piece of music as reflexive of some inner struggle of the "artist." Following through on their argument, the sadness of the minor key must reflect upon some aspect of Mozart's character. Such dated and simplistic discourses belie their origins - the 19th century - a time when scholars were apt to lionize the classical triumvirate of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven and when ideas of music as a gateway to an artist's soul were the norm.
However one may interpret the work, it is hard to fault the designation of Mozart's fortieth symphony as a Masterpiece.
The first movement of Mozart's Symphony no. 40, like most classical symphonies, uses in sonata form. Unlike most Classical Era first movement sonatas, Mozart begins in media res dropping the listener into the quick motion of the lower strings and a turbid melody in violin octaves. The second theme of the first movement is a contrast, a chromatic descent that begins in the strings, changes color quickly in the winds and then returns to the strings. The development section is full of modulations and presents fragments of the first theme in a variety of key areas, often almost fooling the listener into thinking they are hearing or will hear the recapitulation. When the recapitulation does come, the violins turn the tables on the lower strings, surprising them by entering alone.
Note the great shift in character between the two themes of the first movement. The first has a strongly agitated character reminiscent of an aria agitata, while the second is more plaintive and chromatic. This duality between emotion and control is at the heart of this symphony.
The other movements of this symphony are well worth a listen. The second movment is in a more free rounded binary, or ABA, form with each of its halves repeated (AABABA). Its hesitant string gestures and subtle use of chromaticism lend it a certain grace and sensitivity.
The third movement is a clasic minuet and trio. A sinister minor-mode minuet full of polyphonic imitation is contrasted with a pastoral trio that puts the horns to good use. As always in a minuet and trio, the minuet returns at the end. This minuet is a far cry from the calm gentle minuet of Eine Kleine Nachtmusik. A listening chart is not provided for this movement.
The fourth movement, is not as one might expect - a movement in rondo form. Instead, perhaps to express the seriousness of the symphony, it is cast in a modified sonata form. Instead of a traditional sonata of exposition, development and recapitulation, Mozart combines sonata form with a rounded binary (ABA') form. As such we hear the entire exposition and its repeat as we would in sonata form, followed by the development and recapitulation and then a repeat of the development and recapitulation. While the first movement presents a sense of unease, the fourth movement expresses a far more violent nature and through its mixed form a more profound unease. Try to listen for the entrances of the two themes and the recapitulation and note them down for yourself.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony, no. 40 in G minor, mvt 1 (1788)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Symphony, no. 40 in G minor, mvt 2 (1788)
Bernstein Conducts the First Movement of Mozart Symphony 40.
All text © Todd Tarantino 2002-2012.
Not to be reprinted without permission.
This great symphony is written in the key of G minor and the melancholy feel of this key pervades the first movement, although other movements are lighter in mood. The work comprises the usual four movements, but what is slightly unusual is that Mozart uses sonata form to structure the first, second and fourth movements. The third movement is the usual minuet and trio. This piece was created in the Classical Era.
Each movement is varied in terms of tempo as shown below:
– Movement I – Tempo is molto allegro (very fast).
– Movement II – Tempo is andante (at a moderate walking pace).
– Movement III – Tempo is allegretto (slightly slower than allegro).
– Movement IV – Tempo is allegro assai (very fast indeed).
Mozart originally scored the work without the recently invented clarinets, although he later wrote another version which included two clarinets. Another interesting fact is that Mozart is modest in the instrumentation that he uses in his work, which only requires seven woodwind players (one flute, two oboes, two clarinets and two bassoon) and from the brass section, two horns – one in B flat and one in G. This is to give him the notes G-B flat-D (G minor tonic chord) and B flat-D-F (B flat major tonic chord). Of more significant note is the fact that Mozart does not use trumpets or drums! Compare this orchestration to the standard Classical orchestra at the time. This is Mozart’s 550th piece he wrote…Wow!
Analysis of Each Section (in chronological order)
Subject 1 – Bars 1-42
- As I have already said, this movement is played very fast.
- What more the first point to note is that there is no introduction.
- After just three crotchet beats, the first and second violins playing in octaves state the first subject.
- As well as being the first movement, this is also the Exposition.
- Has a homophonic texture (two or more instruments playing together).
- There is a bridge at bar 17.
- Dynamics are quite basic being only quiet, loud or suddenly loud.
Subject 2 – Bars 44- 71
- Slow tempo – walking pace
- Starts quite and peaceful, finishes strong and loud.
- Long slurred notes throughout.
- Descending staccato scale from flute, bassoons and violins at the end to move to codetta.
Codetta – Bars 73-100
- Peaceful and calm tempo.
- Again, long slurred notes at beginning.
- Peace is interrupted with forte violin.
- Use of quavers and crotchets in this section.
Development Section – Bars 101-163
- The music of the development section is based on subject one.
- Improvises a lot on subject one.
- Dynamics similar to subject one being quite, loud and suddenly loud. At the end, uses new dynamics to follow into recapitulation mfp (loud then soft).
Recapitulation – Bars 164-183
- This features the first subject appearing again.
- Short so it flows nicely into Bridge.
- Adopts dynamics of subject one.
Bridge – Bars 184-226
- Overpowering section with loud dynamics and staccato notes.
- Long section: 50 bars long.
Subject 2 Re-appears – Bars 227-259
- Musical and texture are reduced.
- This short section is an extension in which the music modulates to E flat major.
- Hints of the exposition heard, this time in G minor.
Coda – Bars 260-299 (End)
- This section is a bit longer than the codetta.
- (Bars 260-276) The three-note motif from the first subject is passed between the clarinet, bassoon and flute, whilst the first violins exchange the first two notes of the motif in augmentation with the violas and cellos. This section is rounded off with a perfect cadence in G minor at bars 275-276.
- (Bars 276-299) This starts off as a scalic flourish building to the expected final cadence. However this forte passage is suddenly interrupted with some piano woodwind chords at bar 285 during which we hear glimpses of the first subject in the second violins, the first violins at bar 287, cellos at bar 289, the flute, clarinets and bassoons at bar 291.
- (Bar 293-299 (End)) The final ‘tutti’ homophonic reiteration of a series of chords I and V in G minor ending with four emphatic full stops (G minor chords). The last section of six bars corresponds to the last six bars of the exposition!