Written by Chris Jones
It’s About Time, Skill and Permission
Today’s workplace is often hectic, and it’s easier than ever to become overwhelmed in a death spiral of missing information and critical decisions. Things we need to know pile up in our inbox, unread. Decisions await quality cycles that never seem to materialize, often due to lack of information. Meeting after meeting demands our precious time, only to see us fall victim to smart phones signaling the arrival of still more unreadable emails.
So the vicious cycle continues.
It’s a small wonder that work is accomplished anymore. Often, it is not, as we mistake activity for real progress.
To me, the moral of the story is clear: the ability to seek a deep, rigorous understanding of our challenges – call it critical thinking – tends to escape us when we need it most.
I’ve started to unpack the scope and scale of it (as here). But here are some ways that we can breathe purpose and intent back into our problem solving:
- Using data to drive decisions: Replace guesswork with facts and data. Add lead time to decision cycles to accommodate data capture and trending. Challenge decisions that materialize without supporting data.
- Do your homework, and share it: Citing sources isn’t just a technique of academics, it’s the basis for making a strong case, helping explain pro’s/con’s of the decision at hand
- Vet your conclusions: Get help from others. Diverse perspectives almost always ensure a more viable solution.
- Know your SMEs: There are experts out there in your organization, and more than likely, outside it. Find them, and get to know them. Social media is a powerful way to accomplish that.
- Get past “face value”: Don’t settle for surface impressions. What are the root cause factors of problems you’re trying to solve? Can you get to the source issues, and address those? Think about mowing weeds in your lawn, vs. pulling them out, root and all. Which do you do?
- Build your skills: Read. Or, better still, write. Have in-depth conversations on important, complex topics. Explore current events. Education reformers are debating whether schools are pulling away from thinking skills in favor of recitation of facts. If you have kids, what better way to bolster your own thinking skills than by helping them with theirs?
- Prioritize “think time”: Time constraints will always be the enemy of deep thought. Try to “time box” your problem solving for top problems.
What are the Biggest Barriers?
Beyond skills and time, I come back again and again to the impact that culture has on shaping behavior in our workplace. It effects everyone in subtle and powerful ways, including many of those – dare I say, even people like us, ready to challenge the status quo – who fall far too quickly into the old traps and habits.
We need cultural dynamics that encourage – even, give permission – to take the extra time needed to think things through. The ideas listed above are for the individual.
Try These at the Organizational Level
- Encourage adoption of a learning culture: Define success as “raising the bar”, seeking a measurable increase on the emergence of deep thinking across the organization. It would champion collaboration and knowledge sharing. And it would place a high premium – if not a mandate – on critical thinking as the means to make rational, well-supported business decisions.
- Foster a learning organization: Whether it’s Senge or Wheatley or Argyris that inspire your view of it, the culture and skills that embrace critical thinking can transform what an organization is capable of achieving. Put it on the road map. Make it happen.
And if we don’t? We all know that world. We make snap decisions, falling pray to past formulas and taking the default path of playing it safe.
Isn’t it time to make the time for critical thinking?
NOTE: This post was originally contributed by Chris Jones. He is an IT Strategy & Change Management consultant, with a passion for driving new levels of engagement and learning in the modern organization. His research areas include the dynamics of organization culture, and more recently, the importance and implications of critical thinking. Check out his blog, Driving Innovation in a Complex World, for more insights.
Image Credit: Fotopedia
By Denis Korn
I have decided to post this article on the barriers to critical thinking, which I use in teaching, as the 3rd in a series of posts dealing with the psychological, emotional and spiritual components of emergency and disaster preparedness planning.
Normalcy Bias – Why People are attached to Inaction
The Emotional and Spiritual Components of Preparedness
As I have stated before, there is more to preparing for emergencies than the physical “stuff” you surround yourself with. Evaluating, understanding and acknowledging all aspects of the planning process is essential for a proper and complete preparedness program.
This article, which I wrote, has been an important part of the college course I have taught on Critical Thinking – a class I believe to be an important part of a college experience in philosophy. I have not changed it for this post – this is what the students read, reflect upon and discuss in class. Most struggle with its implications and accuracy. It not only applies to preparedness planning – but to all aspects of human deliberation.
BARRIERS TO CRITICAL THINKING
Your responsibility as a critical thinker is to be aware of the barriers, acknowledge the challenges they present, and overcome them to the best of your ability.
“If critical thinking is so important, why is it that uncritical thinking is so common? Why is it that so many people – including many highly educated and intelligent people – find critical thinking so difficult?”And I [Denis] might add – impossible!
Discovering the answers to these questions is crucial to the understanding of what is required to be a true critical thinker, and the reasons you will encounter from those who resist embodying critical thinking skills are often quite complex, and can be both subtle and blatant. The following list of barriers to critical thinking will help guide you to recognizing the challenges that await you and was compiled from Critical Thinking: A Student’s Introduction, our text Beyond Feelings: A Guide to Critical Thinking, and personal observation.
- egocentrism (self-centered thinking)
- sociocentrism or ethnocentrism (group/society/cultural-centered thinking)
- an over-reliance on feelings
- the erroneous belief of personal infallible intuition
- unconscious reaction
- reacting in self defense – fear of personal attack – believing one’s ideas and beliefs are an extension of one’s self and must be defended at all costs
- fear of change or an unwillingness to change
- a pathological inability to evaluate, recognize, or accept an idea or point of view that differs from one’s own
- a less than honorable agenda
- lack of relevant background information or ignorance
- inappropriate bias
- unwarranted assumptions
- overpowering or addictive emotions
- fear of being wrong or face-saving
- selective perception and selective memory
- peer pressure
- conformism (mindless conformity)
- indoctrination initiated by uncritical thinkers with malicious and selfish intent
- provincialism (restricted and unsophisticated thinking)
- narrow-mindedness or close-mindedness
- lack of discernment
- distrust in reason
- relativism (relativistic thinking)
- absolutism (there are no exceptions)
- scapegoating (blaming others)
- wishful thinking
- short-term thinking
- political correctness
- being influenced by drugs
- excessive anger, hate, or bitterness
- disturbing one’s comfort
- lack of personal honesty
- poor reading and comprehension skills
- poor or dysfunctional communication skills
- excessive addiction
- a mental disorder
- cognitive dissonance (psychological conflict resulting from incompatible beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously)
- lack of humility
- the effects of radiation and man-made atmospheric chemicals
- debilitating fear and uncertainty
- reliance on main stream television, newspapers and other media for information
- the effects of television and electronic media on memory, cognition and brain function
In general – the older one becomes the more well-established and rooted these barriers are in the thought process, and the harder it is to overcome them – they become part of you like a scar. It is suggested to triumph over them as soon as possible.
Questions for reflection:
– What is the purpose and value in gaining critical thinking skills? – Is it really necessary?
– What are the rewards? – What are the challenges?
– Am I willing to do what it takes? – How important is it for me? – Can I do it?
– Do I realize that demonstrating, sharing, and embodying wisdom and discernment requires exemplifying critical thinking skills and overcoming its barriers? – Are all these barriers overwhelming?
– Do I realize this is a life long process? – What is the difference between intelligence and wisdom?
– What are the steps required for developing critical thinking skills?
– How do I communicate with others who are not critical thinkers and have embodied these barriers to such an extent that they are unwilling to neither engage in a meaningful dialogue nor acknowledge any responsibility in the communication breakdown? – Or do I bother at all?
– How am I to react or respond when I experience a lack of critical thinking in the media, among friends and family, at the work place, and in my academic courses and studies?
While many think developing critical thinking skills are for the beginning philosophy student, they are in fact vital for everyone. Recognizing and overcoming the barriers to critical thinking listed above is essential in creating and maintaining genuine, honest, and nurturing relationships – developing leadership skills for both family and vocational choices – fulfilling the goals and missions of businesses and organizations – and discovering and achieving purpose and fulfillment in all aspects of one’s life. Many of the barriers to critical thinking are barriers to joyfulness, selflessness, and contentment.
Do not be discouraged by the enormity of the task of reflecting upon, acknowledging, and overcoming these barriers. Have confidence that you will recognize the hold these barriers have on your thought process, and I encourage you to be committed to achieving the obtainable rewards awaiting you when you have accomplished the goal of prevailing over these barriers one by one.
A common denominator of these barriers is that the individual has no control over their effects. They are held captive by defective responses and impressions. One “reacts” to a situation, idea, or challenge, whereas the critical thinker “chooses” the process of thoughtful evaluation – embracing – and embodiment. The critical thinker has the freedom to rightly assess circumstances and concepts, and the result is to arrive at an appropriate and insightful conclusion and reasonable outcome.
In the pursuit of the embodiment of critical thinking skills always be mindful of the value and necessity of honesty, wisdom, discernment, and the need to distinguish the truth from the lie. We live in an unprecedented time of media, institutional, educational, and political self-interest that will not hesitate to use any means possible to achieve its objectives including deceptive indoctrination techniques, propaganda, deceitfulness, fallacious argument, and fraud.
Life is like riding a bicycle.
To keep your balance you must keep moving.
Albert Einstein, in a letter to his son Eduard, February 5, 1930
The Problem of Egocentric Thinking
Egocentric thinking results from the unfortunate fact that humans do not naturally consider the rights and needs of others. We do not naturally appreciate the point of view of others nor the limitations in our own point of view. We become explicitly aware or our egocentric thinking only if trained to do so. We do not naturally recognize our egocentric assumptions, the egocentric way we use information, the egocentric way we interpret data, the source of our egocentric concepts and ideas, the implications of our egocentric thought. We do not naturally recognize our self-serving perspective.
As humans we live with the unrealistic but confident sense that we have fundamentally figured out the way things actually are, and that we have done this objectively. We naturally believe in our intuitive perceptions – however inaccurate [Denis – I personally believe that intuitive perceptions are vital to critical thinking – providing one possesses the required discernment skills]. Instead of using intellectual standards in thinking, we often use self-centered psychological standards to determine what to believe and what to reject. Here are the most commonly used psychological standards in human thinking.
“IT’S TRUE BECAUSE I BELIEVE IT.” Innate egocentrism: I assume that what I believe is true even though I have never questioned the basis for many of my beliefs.
“IT’S TRUE BECAUSE WE BELIEVE IT.” Innate sociocentrism: I assume that the dominant beliefs of the groups to which I belong are true even though I have never questioned the basis for those beliefs.
“IT’S TRUE BECAUSE I WANT TO BELIEVE IT.” Innate wish fulfillment: I belief in whatever puts me (or the groups to which I belong) in a positive light. I believe what “feels good,” what does not require me to change my thinking in any significant way, what does not require me to admit I have been wrong.
“IT’S TRUE BECAUSE I HAVE ALWAYS BELIEVED IT.” Innate self-validation: I have a strong desire to maintain beliefs I have long held, even though I have not seriously considered the extent to which those beliefs are justified by the evidence.
“IT’S TRUE BECAUSE IT IS IN MY SELFISH INTEREST TO BELIEVE IT.” Innate selfishness: I believe whatever justifies my getting more power, money, or personal advantage even though those beliefs are not grounded in sound reasoning or evidence.
 Gregory Bassham, Critical Thinking: A Student’s Introduction, 3rd ed., (New York, McGraw-Hill, 2008), p. 11
Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools, Dr. Richard Paul and Dr. Linda Elder