Non-Cabinet Bureaucratic Titles For Essays

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This article is about the idiom referring to excessive bureaucratic regulation. For other uses, see Red tape (disambiguation).

Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. It is usually applied to governments, corporations, and other large organizations.

One definition is the "collection or sequence of forms and procedures required to gain bureaucratic approval for something, especially when oppressively complex and time-consuming".[1] Another definition is the "bureaucratic practice of hair splitting or foot dragging, blamed by its practitioners on the system that forces them to follow prescribed procedures to the letter".[2]

Things often described as "red tape" include filling out paperwork, obtaining licenses, having multiple people or committees approve a decision and various low-level rules that make conducting one's affairs slower, more difficult, or both. Red tape can also include "filing and certification requirements, reporting, investigation, inspection and enforcement practices, and procedures".[3]


The origin of the term is somewhat obscure, but it is first noted in historical records in the 16th century, when Henry VIII besieged Pope Clement VII with around eighty or so petitions for the annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. A photo of the petitions from Cardinal Wolsey and others, now stored in the Vatican archives, can be seen on page 160 of Saints and Sinners: A History of The Popes, by Eamon Duffy (published by Yale University Press in 1997). The documents can be viewed rolled and stacked in their original condition, each one sealed and bound with the obligatory red tape, as was the custom.

It is generally believed that the term originated with the Spanish administration of Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, in the early 16th century, who started to use red tape in an effort to modernize the administration that was running his vast empire. The red tape was used to bind the most important administrative dossiers that required immediate discussion by the Council of State, and separate them from issues that were treated in an ordinary administrative way, which were bound with ordinary string.[4]

Most of the red tapes arriving at the Council of State were manufactured in the city of 's-Hertogenbosch in the Netherlands, because most of the important dossiers came from the Low Countries (present-day Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg which at that time also belonged to the Spanish Habsburg dynasty) and the Holy Roman Empire (mainly present-day Germany). The Spanish name for red tape "balduque" was derived from the Spanish translation of the city of 's-Hertogenbosch French name Bois-le-Duc, which is "Bolduque".

Although they were not governing such a vast territory as Charles V, this practice of using red tape to separate the important dossiers that had to be discussed, was quickly copied by the other modern European monarchs to speed up their administrative machines.

In this age of civil servants using computers and information technology, a legacy from the administration of the Spanish Empire can still be observed where some parts of the higher levels of the Spanish administration continue the tradition of using red tape to bind important dossiers that need to be discussed and to keep them bound in red tape when the dossier is closed. This is, for example, the case for the Spanish Council of State, the supreme consultative council of the Spanish Government. In contrast, the lower Spanish courts use ordinary twine to bundle documents as their cases are not supposed to be heard at higher levels. The Spanish Government plans[when?]to phase out the use of paper and abandon the practice of using twine.

The tradition continued through to the 17th and 18th century. Charles Dickens, in David Copperfield wrote, "Britannia, that unfortunate female, is always before me, like a trussed fowl: skewered through and through with office-pens, and bound hand and foot with red tape". The English practice of binding documents and official papers with red tape was popularized in Thomas Carlyle's[5] writings, protesting against official inertia with expressions like "Little other than a red tape Talking-machine, and unhappy Bag of Parliamentary Eloquence". To this day, most defense barristers' briefs, and those from private clients, are tied in a pink-coloured ribbon known as "pink tape" or "legal tape".

Even in modern times, Spanish bureaucracy is notorious for unusually extreme levels of red tape (in the figurative sense).[6] As of 2013, the World Bank ranked Spain 136 out of 185 countries for ease of starting a business, which took on average 10 procedures and 28 days.[7] Similar issues persist throughout Latin America.[6][8] As of 2009 in Mexico, it took six months and a dozen visits to government agencies to obtain a permit to paint a house,[9] and to obtain a monthly prescription for gamma globulin for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, a patient had to obtain signatures from two government doctors and stamps from four separate bureaucrats before presenting the prescription to a dispensary.[10]

Red tape reduction[edit]

The "cutting of red tape" - meaning a reduction of bureaucratic obstacles to action.

Business representatives often claim red tape is a barrier to business, particularly small business. In Canada, the Canadian Federation of Independent Business[11] has done extensive research[12] into the impact of red tape on small businesses.

The European Commission has a competition that offers an award for the "Best Idea for Red Tape Reduction". The competition is "aimed at identifying innovative suggestions for reducing unnecessary bureaucracy stemming from European law".[13] In 2008, the European Commission held a conference entitled 'Cutting Red Tape for Europe'. The goal of the conference was "reducing red tape and overbearing bureaucracy," in order to help "business people and entrepreneurs improve competitiveness".[citation needed]

In the UK, the ruling Conservative Party is actively reducing red tape with a joint team working across a newly (2016) formed ministry, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and the Cabinet Office.[14] It follows on from the Red Tape Challenge that ran from 2011 to 2014 under the Conservative-Lib Dem Coalition of 2010-2015.[15][16] At its launch, then-Prime Minister David Cameron spoke of his intention to limit and reduce the 21,000 statutory rules and regulations in force at the time.[16] By the end of the 3-year initiative, 2,400 regulations had been scrapped, representing over 10% of the total.[14] In all, it was estimated that businesses would be £40m a year better off as a result.[17] Another key change as a result of this initiative was 'Businesses with good records have had fire safety inspections reduced from 6 hours to 45 minutes, with the intention of allowing managers to quickly get back to their day job',[14] something that was highlighted following the Grenfell Tower tragedy, with some suggesting that the extend of fire spread would've been limited prior to the change.[18][19][20][21]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"red tape: Definition from". Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  2. ^"What is red tape? definition and meaning". Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  3. ^"Red Tape Reduction Initiative | Business". Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  4. ^Dickson, Del (2015). The People's Government: An Introduction to Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 176. ISBN 9781107043879. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  5. ^p.1152, Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable, 17th Edition; Revised by J Ayto, 2005
  6. ^ abGraff, Marie Louise (2009). CultureShock! Spain (6th ed.). Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish. p. 57. ISBN 9789814435949. 
  7. ^Buck, Tobias (2 June 2013). "Spain hopes new law to cut red tape will attract entrepreneurs". Financial Times. The Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  8. ^Jose Luis Guasch; Benjamin Herzberg (2008). "Increasing Competitiveness Through Regulatory and Investment Climate Improvements in Latin America; the Case of Mexico". In Haar, Jerry; Price, John. Can Latin America Compete? Confronting the Challenges of Globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 255. ISBN 9781403975430. 
  9. ^Ellingwood, Ken (2 January 2009). "No stamp of approval for Mexico bureaucrats". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing Company. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  10. ^Malkin, Elizabeth (8 January 2009). "For Redress of Grievances, Mexicans Turn to Bureaucracy Contest". New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  11. ^"". Retrieved 2014-01-23. 
  12. ^"Canada's Red Tape Report". Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-23. 
  13. ^European Commission[dead link]
  14. ^ abc"Cutting Red Tape home page". Cutting Red Tape. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  15. ^"<? bloginfo( 'name' )?> - Home". Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  16. ^ ab"Red Tape Challenge - GOV.UK". Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  17. ^"Business-friendly enforcement saves firms over £40 million - GOV.UK". Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  18. ^Letters (19 June 2017). "Grenfell Tower shows that poor tenants cannot rely on armchair auditors to protect them". Retrieved 5 September 2017 – via The Guardian. 
  19. ^"The Grenfell inquiry will be a stitch-up. Here's why". 5 July 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017 – via The Guardian. 
  20. ^"London Building Act 'would have averted Grenfell disaster'". Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  21. ^"Scrapped fire safety laws 'burdened' builders – official report". Retrieved 5 September 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Barry Bozeman (2000) Bureaucracy and Red Tape Prentice-Hall Publishing.
  • OECD (2006) 'Cutting red tape; national strategies for administrative simplification' OECD Editions, Paris.

External links[edit]

Bundle of US pension documents from 1906 bound in red tape

The Federal Bureaucracy:

What is it and how is it organized?

Bureaucracy: Definition

•      The government organizations, usually staffed with officials selected on the basis of experience and expertise, that implement public policy

•      Hierarchical organization into specialized staffs

•      Free of political accountability (non-partisan)

–   Still affected by Congressional budget and oversight

•      Ideal scenario: members apply specific rules of action to each case in a rational, nondiscretionary, predictable, and impersonal way


•      What does it do?

–  From protecting the environment to collecting revenue to regulating the economy

–  American bureaucracies implement a $2 trillion budget

–  Vague lines of authority allow some areas of the bureaucracy to operate with a significant amount of autonomy

Max Weber

Growth of the Federal Bureaucracy

•      1789 – 50 federal government employees

•      2000 – 2.8 million (excluding military, subcontractors, and consultants who also work for federal government)

•      Growth mainly at state and local level since 1970

–   Federal government began devolving powers and services to state and local government

•      Total federal, state, local employees – roughly 21 million people

Organization of Bureaucracy

•      A complex society requires a variety of bureaucratic organizations

•      Four components of Federal Bureaucracy:

–  Cabinet departments

–  Independent executive agencies

–  Independent regulatory agencies

–  Government organizations (USPS, FDIC, TVA)

Cabinet Departments

•      15 departments which serve as the major service organizations of federal government

–   State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, HHS, HUD, Transportation, Energy, Education, Vet. Affairs, Homeland Security

•      Political appointments (Secretaries) at the top who are directly accountable to the president

–   However, staff under secretaries are permanent employees who may resist change

Independent Executive Agencies

•      Not located within any cabinet department, but report directly to the President

–  This gives it some independence from a department that may be hostile to the creation of the agency

•   Secretary of the Interior vs. Environmental Protection Agency

–  Examples: EPA, Office of Homeland Security (before it was made a department last year)

Independent Regulatory Agencies

•      Make and implement rules and regulations in a particular sector of the economy to protect the public interest

–   Congress unable to handle complexities and technicalities required to carry out specific laws

•      Are they truly independent?

–   Suppose to work for public interest, but industries can “capture” them (ICC)

•    Leads to pro-business, rather than pro-consumer, behavior

•      Examples: Federal Reserve Board, Equal Employment Commission, Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Staffing the Bureaucracy

•      Natural Aristocracy

–  Thomas Jefferson fired Federalist employees and placed his own men in government positions

•      Spoils System

–  Andrew Jackson used government positions to reward supporters

–  Bureaucracy became corrupt, bloated, and inefficient

Civil Service Reform

•      Pendleton Act of 1883

–   Employment on the basis of merit and open, competitive exams

–   Civil Service Commission to administer the personnel service

•      Hatch Act of 1939

–   Civil service employees cannot take an active party in the political management of campaigns

•      Rutan v. Republican Party of Illinios (1990)

–   Court ruled that partisan political considerations as the basis for hiring, promoting, or transferring public employees was illegal

Political Control of Bureaucracy

•      Who should control the bureaucracy?

–  Bureaucracy should be responsive to elected officials (Congress, the President)

•   Members of the bureaucracy are not elected, and must be held accountable for their actions

•   Making them responsive to elected officials give the public a voice in bureaucratic operations

–  The bureaucracy should be free from political pressures

•   They should be autonomous

Theories of Bureaucratic Politics

•      Politics-Administration Dichotomy

–  Bureaucracy should be free of politics

•      Iron Triangles

–  Interest groups

–  Congressional subcommittees

–  Bureaucratic agencies

•      Issue Networks

•      Principal-Agent Model

Politics-Administration Dichotomy

•      : Bureaucracy is neutral and not political

–  Bureaucrats are experts in their specialties and must be left alone to do their job without political interference

•      However, people began to realize that politics and administration were NOT separate

–  Norton Long: “Power is the lifeblood of administration”

Iron Triangles

•      Reinforcing relationship between:

–  Interest Groups

–  Congressional Subcommittees

–  Bureaucratic agencies

•      Policy decisions are made jointly by these three groups who feed off each other to develop and maintain long-term, regularized relationships

Issue Networks

•      The relationship between bureaucracy is not as rigid as iron triangle theory would have us believe

–  Also, more than three actors involved in process

•   For every issue, there are also a number of political elites who are involved (and who know each other via the issue)

–   Members of Congress, congressional committees, the president, advocacy groups, and “issue watchers” (like academics or highly interested citizens)

Principal-Agent Model

•      Who are principals, who are agents?

•      Principals and agents both seek to maximize their interests

–  Principals want to control bureaucracy

–  Agents want to have the least amount of control exerted over it

•      To keep agents in check, two possibilities:

–  Monitoring/oversight

–  Minimizing goal conflict

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